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Mosul History


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History of the city of Mosul
The Historical sources indicate that  the Arabs inhabited the Arabian Peninsula in centuries BC, and from the Peninsula lands which inhabited by the Arabs at that time (the city of Mosul) corresponding to the city of Nineveh ..
Mosul was one of the old homelands that Arabs lived in with the Assyrians. In the year 1080 BC. the Assyrian had made Mosul as their capital (the archeological remains of Nineveh on the left side of the city of Mosul, now), the Assyrians had fortified Nineveh by walls and castles, which are seeingtoday in the bab shams and Tel Qoingq and al masqa gate and the Nrkal gate and Tal altawba (Prophet Yunus) and linked by Nineveh buried wall in most of its parts. Assyrians also built a number of castles to defend themselves . one of them the castle that located up the hill called (Tel Kulaiat) on the shore of the Tigris against the city of Nineveh, which was called (al hisn al obory). In the year 612 BC. the. Medes and Alcaldeon took Nineveh after the hard battle and destroyed it and destroyed al hisn al obory.
The establishment of Mosul
After the end of the battles,the people of Mosul and Nineveh backed  to their homes and repaired that ravaged by the fighting and rebuilt  al hisn al obory, and the migration of Arab tribes to the lands of the Arabian Peninsula and al_sham steppe had increased, and the building and construction around al-hisn al-obory became moretill it became amomentous village, the Arabs called it (Mosul) for being the concourse of several routes linking East and West. Alakhminion who ruled at 550-331 BC. have interested  in settlingthe Arabs and Persians in Mosul , the city has become significant. Mosul did not securefrom the wars that took place between East and West, which caused the ravaged several times, including the wars between the Sasanians and the Romans in 241 AD and in 579 AD. In the year 627 AD the Romansdefeated the Persians after a decisive battle near Mosul,  so Mosul became under Roman rule .

Names and titles of Mosul
There are many says in naming Mosul (al-haddaba), there are those who say that is according  to al-Nouri mosque bevel beacon, and some say that the label (al-haddaba) came from the stoop of Tigris River and warp its course when it passed north of the city. And others attribute this designation to the stoop of its high land in(Tel Kulaiat). In the view of Orientalist (Jean Morris Aledumniki), one of the most interested in Mosul and its heritage, history, language and its features, the first name of mosul was (mashpil) which is a Babylonian name and its mean the destroyed when it ravaged by wars, and when occupied by the Greeks they changed the letter sh By sto be (Mospil), then this name developed to be(mosul) according to its wide use and to the coincidence between the letters sh and s .as toZinfon who passed throw al-Mosul in the middle of the fifth century BC,he has called it (Musila). And most historians agree that the naming of Mosul came from its linking of two areas or two places, but they differed among themselves about the two places which it linked between, many of them due naming al- Mosul because it linked between the Tigris and the Euphrates, others seethat it linked between Iraq and Al-Jazeera, and others think it has linked between East and West, North and South. It was also nicknamed (um al-rabeayn) according to mild and sweet weather  in the spring and fall and their similarity, also called the (green) for the greeningand beauty of surface soil ,andsomepeople  name it (white) because in ancient time its housesbuilt with marble and white plaster .

Islamic Arab liberation of Mosul
In the year 16 AH \ 637 ADMosul has been liberated without a fight by Arab Muslims, led by (RabeyIbnAl -avklAl -anzi) who masterminded the plan to liberate Mosul with theArabian tribes which participated with the Romans to defendingTikrit, this tribes retreated to al Mosul showing the defeat of Muslims in the battle ofTikrit, when they entered the city theycontrolledon the doors to enterbehind them the armies of the Muslims without fighting, and al-mosul freed againat 20 AH .

Mosul, in the era of theRashidi Caliphs
(otbabin Farqad peaceful) has becamethe ruler of Mosul after liberation and he had charted it and housed the freed Arab Muslims of the tribes ,namir,taghlib and ayad, and built a house forprincipality and al- Masjid al- jame which is the first mosque built by Muslims in Mosul, and remained until the year 543 AH. During the era of Caliph UthmanibnAffan (god bless him) the migration of Arab tribes to mosul has grew after theConquestsStability, including al-uzd,Kinda , taiandAbdqais. In the ruling (ArfajahBen HrthmaAlbargi) Mosul and MasjidJamahas been expanded and developed, and also Arab migration tomosul in succession Ali ibnAbiTalib (god bless him), and thus Mosul became a major city full of its people.
Mosul in the Umayyad
in the era of (Saeed bin Abdul Malik bin Marwan) the expansion of Mosulas he made ​​great efforts in reconstruction and fortify the city and paving roads with stones, as (Marwan bin Muhammad) the last caliphs built it castleand bridge. (al-hur Ben Youssef al -omawy) has dig a river known as (al-nahr al-hur) runs along the hills that overlooking on hawi al-kaneesa (which is the current stream of the Tigris River), where it was previously passing near the wall of Nineveh, and (al-masqa gate)located on it. in this period the migration of Arab tribescontinued which is tribes of Rabia,Shiban,Khazraj and taghlib.

Mosul, in the Abbasi
In the rule of al- abbasean  at 132AH the people ofMosulrevolted on the Abbasigovernor(Mohammad Binsool)the Persian, sopeople killedand homesdestroyed, and whentheCaliphal-safahheard that , he appointed his uncle as ruler of Mosul (Ismailbin Ali binAl-abbas)so he fixed the conditions ,and itseconomic position returnedin the succession of caliph al- Mahdi.

Mosul at the Ottoman era
the Ottomansrule of mosul continued and the governors follow in succession on it until Suleiman Nazifcame into power at 1317 AH then he opened the (two streets)one of them cuts the city from south to north called (al-nabijerjeas street) and the other cut off the city from the middle from east to west and named (Nineveh street), Mosulhassufferedfromordeals and the most famous the famine which have been called (ghala al -lera) in 1878 AD where people ate animals and carrion, then it suffered from another famine at the end of World War I in 1917 AD, which have been called (sanat al-ghala) due to refraction of the Ottomans in their war with the English who entered Mosul in 1918 without fighting after the truce.

Mosul in the monarchy
Mosul moved to the era of civil rule at 1339 AH -1921 AD, under the British Mandate, and remaineda trump card in the hands of English to bargain on the mandate at the negotiations that took place to determine the boundary line between Iraq and Turkey, by pressing on the existing  monarchy toaccept the Mandate document . the people of Mosul during the referendum conducted by a special committee refused to join Turkey, and defended on their nation and their devotion to the pure soil of Iraq. Mosul has remained under the monarchy until the Revolution July 14, 1958 in social and cultural depression, like other parts of Iraq, which the colonist power has controlled it resources and riches. This period witnessed  significant  incidents in its heroic history , including armyuprisingat 1937 AD after the assassination of General BakrSidqi Chief of Staff of the army at Mosul airport and refused to hand over and judge the Free Officers that  responsible of the incidentwhich ended by forcing the government to resign and exempted  officers from trail . As well as the assassination of the British Consul in Mosul after killing King Ghazi in an accident arranged by the English. Mosulhas participated in the revolution of May 1941 AD against the British occupation, the childrenof Mosul also took part in all political activities against the monarchy and the British Mandate in 1952 and 1956 and 1957

Wall and the gates of Mosul
Many of Mosul citizens at present time unaware the reasons behind naming a number of their shops (Al-Bab = door) despite the absence of any door, such as (Bab al- jaded / Bab al- toop), these labels back to the period in which the wall had built around Mosul, where it has surrounded by wall built of milk and mud then built with stone and stucco at  80 e -669 m at the time of Said bin Abd al-Malik, but Harun al-Rashid demolished the wall after the move of Mosul at 180 AH, and  in the era of sharaf al-daulaAlukaili at 474 AH -1081 AD the fence has reconstructed up a little, after him, Seljuks,had enforced it, and in the time of Imadel-Dinthe fencehas tightened well, and it was surrounded by a deep trench has nine doors:al-Bab al-Emadi–Bab al-jasaseen–Bab al-medan- Bab Kinda–Al-Bab al-gharbi –Bab Iraq –Bab al-qasabeen– Bab al- mashraa  –Bab al-  jisr, and during theMongols siege to  the city, several parts of the fencedestroyed and opened a number of gaps in it ,thenthe fence has been renewed and maintainedat1040 AH -1630 AD by the governor Bakr bin Ismail Pasha Ben Younes  al-Mosuli, and now it has thirteen doors which are:

1 – Bab al-jisr = the door of the bridge (near the bridge Ottoman). . 2 –Bab al toop=brick door (Bab al-qasabeen= the door of butchers).
3 –Bab liksh= straw door(the door of straw or grass, which was sold beside iteach day).
4 –Bab al Sarai= palace door (neargovernment house).
5 –Bab al-hurria= door of freedom (Bab al jasaseen=the door of plasterers), a notch in the wall named later (Bab al –wabaa=the door of the epidemic) Closed when the epidemic appeared , and opened as a door of freedom in the era of the Ottomans.
6 –Bab shatt al-qalaa= the door of Castle beach  (the castle that was in place of oldMosul municipality named,Eajqalaa).
7 - Bab Al Emadi= Emadi door (relative to emadel-Dinzinky).
8 –Bab al-sir= secret door (the door leading from the Eaj Castle to the river).
9 –Bab eyen kbreat=sulfur spring door (the door leading from the castle Pashtabia to the river and once upon a time called secret door).
10 –Bab al-baidh= door of eggs (Kinda door previously) and the eggs weresold beside it each day.
11 - Bab Shatt almakawi and Shatt al hasa (the door of the former legislator= Bab al mashraa).
12 - Bab Sinjar (formerly the door of the field= Bab al meedan).
13 – the new door= Bab al -jadeed (built instead of the door of Iraq after the expansion of the city to the south).

These doors were outlets to connect the city with surrounding villages, as to the doors located on the Tigris River, sothey were ways connecting the citywith theriver to enable the residents to take what they need from drinking water and doing laundry and wool washing in the water of the river. Alsosome gaps and vandalism come upon the wall as result of the siege of Nadirshah to city, repaired byMosul ruler Al-Hajj Hussein Pasha Al- Galilee, and it still standing and sustained by the governors until World War II, where the Turks demolished a large portion of it at1915 AD. the fence now not exist anymore except  some of it ruins in QaraSarai and Pashtabia and barood khana and al-badan neighborhood in Bab al-baidh and Bab al-toop.
Castles and old buildings
The visitor of Mosul noticed the presence of many ancient archeological places, especially on the western edge of the Tigris River, and these places are only the remains of forts and castles and palaces created by the rulers in previous eras, and took some fortresses to defend the city and to store the ammunition and supplies, others for housing, in Mosul, there were thefollowing Castles and buildings: Assyrian fortress: the first fort on  Kulaiat hill set up for defending on Mosul, and this fort demolishedat 612 BC. m, and rebuilt and called fort west later, thin neglected after the Islamic Liberation. Castle Pashtabia: Located on the north of old Mosul, and it have been thought  that Aluqailiyn were the first founders of the castle which was extensive one , built with stucco and stone, and was accommodate for thousands armies with their ammunition, and it extends  to qara saray in the south and the place of the Imam Mohsen in the west, and there were underground tunnel links it with the houses of Queen in the qara saray, and it has two doors, one of them leads to the army field in the west, and the secret door that leads to the river Tigris, which does not open only when needed, the castle demolished in the siege of Tamerlane of Mosul at 796 AH -1393 AD and remained some ruins have rebuilt later by the Ottomans, and are now destroyed ruins that dust covers most its dilapidated sections, and was named after (Pashtabia) by the Turks according to its immunity and height (main hill). Fort: built by the Mughal at 660 AH -1261 AD in the center of Mosul, which is that it is now saraya bath(haddabaa) and the Mosque Zainab Khatoon and it extends up to the Bab al-nabi quarter and Bab al-jabalain quarter, and it was contain saraya buildings, saraya bath, saraya mosque, place of al-sit nafeesa, the army facilities and the alley fort, which extends from Nineveh street to al-Nouri mosque under the fort. qara saray: built as mansions of the Kingdom in the era of Altapikya state to south of Castle Pashtabia ,the Ottomans called it (Black Saray) for its walls being black as result of smoke of the fire that was lit by some poor people, they were flourishing castles full of the gardens and the fountains and beautiful statues, so Sultan Imad al=deen prevents construction in front of palaces to be an arena for review and training the army and the so the field had called( al-akhder= green) according to its greenness, as the people of Mosul were called it  (ard al- bakj=land of gardens) relative to the Bakjh=small gardens, and it was one of the parks that people of Mosul headed for in the spring. Interior Castle: Known in Turkish (Eaj qalaa) built by the Ottomans at 1030 AH \ 1620 AD on the coast of Tigris River in front of current al-maidan market, and there were a wall and moat separates the castle from the facing field and which has taken for army residing and training, just like Pashtabia Castle, this castle has two door the door of the castle and the secret door, and in the monarchy it has taken as Department of Water and electricity, on a part of its land the old municipal building had built , and on the river facing part, garden cafe had established and nearby it a port for wood sale . the military and civilian court house : built by Mosul ruler at 1258 AH -1842 AD  for Administration and army and their place at now in the military hospital and the civil courts, and in front of them was a Square is now the garden of the martyrs.

Some mosques and shrines of Mosul
says a lot that the city of Mosul is the city of prophets, but studies say different thing that the presence of many names of the prophets and virtuous in one city is unreasonable. Most of the labels has been named regard to the prophets as result of turning the people of the city to worship and piety and their holding of the prophets and the righteous line of conduct ,in the following some of these mosques: Mosque of the Prophet Yonus : is this mosque on the repentance hill, built by Mu'tadeid bellah and renewed by jameela bint Nasser aldawlah about the year 580 AH, and renewed again by Jalal al-Din Ibrahim Alkhanti at 767 AH, in which the tomb of the Prophet Younis has been found on the hill which the whale throw him on after the long journey mentioned in the Koran. Omayyad Mosque: The first mosque built in Mosul after the Islamic Liberation, and there is another version says that the mosque of  Khazraj is the first mosque built after the Liberation, it was built by the otbah bin Farqad al-silmy at 17 AH in the name (al-masjed al- jamee= the gatherer mosque), then Marwan ibn Muhammad has renewed its building  at102 AH, it has also renewed during the atabiks era at 541 AH, then destroyed and it sections fell in the time of the Mongols, then Alkuazon lived in the area in the twelfth century of migration and it became known as the Mosque of Alkuazen, at 1225 AH, a man named Haji Mohammad the gold clearer had renewed the mosque, so it has became known as (musafi mosque= clearer) until today. Nouri Mosque: built by Nour al-Din Mahmud Ibn Imad al-Din zanki at 568 AH, it is called now (al-jamee al-kabeer=Great Mosque), and like other mosques,it has neglected and damaged at the time of the Mongols til 1150 AH, when Mosul hit by hard plague killed large number of people, at this year ,the mosque re-cleaned and reconstructed in the time of Hussein Pasha of Galilee, and at 1944 AD, the mosque which was built with stone and plaster demolished  and rebuilt with marble, Mustafa Sabunji has supervised on the construction and expansion where in addition to Hadbaa minaret he has built  4 other minarets. Mujahidi mosque: It is known al- khudr mosque, also called the (Red Mosque), which is built by Mujahid al- Din Qaimaz at 572 AH, and then a bridge had been built in front of it links between the two shores of the river, the mosque has renewed when al-hur Ben Youssef street reopened in the seventies, and remained a beautiful impact in the beginning of the street, which is also called Corniche. Mosque of profit  Sheet: is built by the governor Mustapha Pasha Al-nishangi at 1057 AH, where he saw in a dream the tomb of Nabi Sheet in its current location outside the city wall, he asked one of Mosul  traders named Haj Ali Al-nomah to dig in the same place and shows the grave and build a dome over it, so he did what governor commanded him and became known as the shrine of the Prophet Sheet . In the year 1206 AH a mosque beside the shrine has been reconstructed for pray , known as the mosque of Nabi Sheet. Mosque of the Prophet jarjis: built as small mosque then it has been expanded and become large mosque in Al-shaarien market area, there is no definite information on the existence of the Prophet jarjis grave. the motifs and Kufic inscriptions in it Indicate that is from the sixth century of migration. .The shrine of Imam Yahya bin Qasim: is located in the north of Mosul, near Pashtabia Castle, built by the governor of Mosul, Badr al-Din lolo H. 637, and the tomb of Imam Yahya bin Imam Qasim bin Imam Hassan bin Ali (may Allah be pleased with him). in the era of Badr al-Din loloI it used as school named(al-Badriyah school). The shrine of Sheikh qadeeb Alban: is Abu Abdullah ibn Isa ibn Yahya Ali al-Moussalli sheikh jaleel, he was had a good shape and face so he had been called (qadeeb Alban=ben rod),he contacted with Sheikh Abd al-Qadir al-Gailani and accompanied him for twenty years and married his daughter and traveled to al-sham and Hijaz and then devoted himself to teaching and guidance. He died in 573 AH and buried in this shrine, near old stadium of Mosul